Now Available: The Frontiers of Truth

Now available exclusively from Lulu:

The Frontiers of Truth is the third book by Geoffrey A. Pocock, a handsome, casewrapped hardcover volume, 236 pages.

The Legion of Frontiersmen was formed in 1904 for fellowship and service to the State at any time of need. Its first official historian, Geoffrey A. Pocock, has written two books in connection with the Frontiersmen, One Hundred Years of the Legion of Frontiersmen, and his biography of the founder of the Legion, Outrider of Empire.

The Frontiers of Truth is an extensive new article that has never appeared on either the official Frontiersmen history website or the blog, detailing the (mis)adventures of some of the Legion’s most notorious early members. Their stories raise an important question about autobiographies, and why they should never be entirely trusted by historians without extensive research to establish corroborating evidence.

Also included in this volume are over thirty articles that first appeared on the official Frontiersmen history website or blog, fully revised and updated where appropriate, brought together for the first time here in a print volume. They cover diverse topics from the long history of the Legion of Frontiersmen, including: Frontiersmen and the Boy Scouts, Frontiersmen in their Own Words, Frontiersmen and the Sea, Friends in High Places, When a Government Minister Supported the Frontiersmen, On Parade in front of 139,000 People, The Mystery of the Union Flag, What Caused the Rift?, The Flying Frontiersmen, Defending Against Chemical Warfare and A Murder Mystery.

View/Buy “The Frontiers of Truth” on Lulu.

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Frontiersmen Independent Thinkers

Collage001Topic February / March 2019A brief look at some Frontiersmen characters who some might describe as eccentric.

The late, great, Patrick Moore (who was also a Frontiersman) was always fascinated by what might be called eccentrics by some, but who he preferred to call “Independent Thinkers”.

“The Independent Thinker is a genuine, well-meaning person, who is not hidebound by convention, and who is always ready to strike out on a line of his own…”¹

The Legion of Frontiersmen has been the natural home for the independent thinker and we have seen many times when the independent thoughts and ideas they produced were either ahead of their time or not acceptable to their military or official masters.

Lieutenant A.Harold Reed, an officer of 25th Bn. Royal Fusiliers (Frontiersmen) was a man of considerable bulk weighing some 300lb and known to the troops with army humour as ‘Baby’ Reed. He had enjoyed an adventurous life as what might today be considered a mercenary. He had fought in the 1898 Greco-Turkish War, the South African War, with the Mexican forces from 1910 to 1912 and then in the Honduras army. He had been originally commissioned and posted to the Shropshire Light Infantry, a strange posting indeed. The Colonel took one look at his size and gazetted him out as “appearance unfavourable”. Lt.Col. Driscoll saw no problem and saw his experiences as an advantage and took him on to command his Stokes Mortar Battery. Reed decided that he could help solve the problem of the lack of guns transportable by just a few men. He was permitted the use of the Uganda Railway and a short film of a demonstration of his gun in front of senior officers is held at the Imperial War Museum. The projectile did travel some distance, but it exploded the barrel on its way as the quality of metal was not strong enough. Reed was not permitted to continue working on his invention. ²

Before the First War Legion Lieut. Clifton West was another Frontiersman who fancied himself as an inventor. Born in Rochester, Kent, in 1879, West had served in the Army Service Corps in South Africa and had been one of those besieged at Ladysmith. For some years after the War, Clifton West worked as a fishmonger at Poole on the Dorset coast, eventually selling his business and moving to London. In 1912 he was appointed organising officer for the Poole sub-unit of the Legion of Frontiersmen. It is not apparent what other life experiences, if any, gave him qualifications as an inventor, but in 1913 paragraphs appeared in a number of newspapers reporting that he had invented a new type of projectile. Zeppelins had caused considerable shock and trepidation among the British public and there were discussions about how attacking Zeppelins could be brought down.

“The weapon is fitted internally with radiating steel propeller blades, which are released automatically on leaving a gun. On coming into contact with the inflated sides of a dirigible, large openings are rent by the propeller blades, so that the hydrogen is bound to escape and cause the destruction of the airship. From the moment of its leaving the mouth of the gun the projectile is in action ready to ignite any hydrogen or gas through which it may pass. The projectiles are non-explosive and are quite harmless before being fired. Furthermore it is claimed that they offer a minimum amount of damage when returning to earth.” ³

Clifton West claimed that each projectile would pass through the air with a tail of fire like a comet. The igniting of the gas would be as simple as the way in which a gas cooker was then lit, presumably by a flint lighter. The propeller blades would not spin but only present a knife edge to the air, causing little resistance. He seems to have overlooked the fact that the projectile itself would be spinning as it would have to be fired from a rifled barrel to obtain the distance. In 1914 the newspapers again ran a version of the story, but this time our inventor claimed that the War Office were interested and that he had also received an approach from the German company Krupps. Nothing more seems to have been heard of Clifton West and no further mention in Frontiersmen magazines. It is believed that he may have died in 1915 with his invention still at the planning stage. Anyone with a school education in science can see the problems with West’s invention, but as Patrick Moore wrote, the Independent Thinker “…makes other people concentrate hard; and from this, nothing but good can emerge”. ⁴

Frontiersmen at Cenotaph, 1980

Edward Knoblock was a man whose life was interesting and intriguing rather than full of excitement. He saw his share of danger, although he chose to write about very few of such events in his life. He was an American who was born in New York in 1874 and who died in 1945. Roger Pocock knew him through his sister Lena Ashwell and the Edwardian London stage set. They often met and Pocock recruited him into the Legion of Frontiersmen. Lena Ashwell managed and starred in Knoblock plays, the plots of which would be considered today as too intense even for television dramas although Edwardian theatre audiences loved them.

In 1916 Knoblock was introduced to S.I.S. intelligence branch under Smith-Cumming (C) by Somerset Maugham. He was promised a commission in the RNVR, but it was discovered that, as an American citizen, he was ineligible although in 1915 that did not stop Northrup McMillan getting a commission in the 25th Fusiliers (Frontiersmen). Instead, a commission for Knoblock in the RNAS was suggested, but no sooner was the uniform bought than it had to be changed to an army General Service commission as an intelligence officer. He served for a while in Switzerland, but was then sent to the Mediterranean to serve with Compton Mackenzie. It was decided that it was best to take all the uniforms, including both naval and military swords. Compton Mackenzie dedicated one of his books “Aegean Memories” to Knoblock, who was his lifelong friend. In 1917 Knoblock suffered a severe bout of dysentery and was invalided home. After a period working in Smith-Cumming’s offices, he went to France working from an SIS out-station in the French Alps. He returned to civilian life in 1919, but told Smith-Cumming that he would have liked to stay in SIS:

“One doesn’t have to think. You do the thinking for us. We just obey orders. That’s the beauty of the service. I wish I could remain in it for the rest of my life.” ⁵

Knoblock remained a confirmed bachelor and very theatrical. There is a story of him going to lunch with actor Sir John Gielgud, who was utterly forgetful about names. A man approached them at lunch, nodded to Gielgud and moved on. “Thank Heaven”, said Gielgud, “I thought he might be that crashing bore Eddie Knoblock.”

“But I am Eddie Knoblock” commented Knoblock. “Oh,” said Gielgud, thinking wildly for an explanation, “I meant the other Eddie Knoblock”. ⁶

Knoblock’s most famous play was “Kismet”. His script was eventually turned into a Broadway musical in America, using the music of Borodin, and was later made into a 1955 film musical, starring Howard Keel, Ann Blyth and Vic Damone. An earlier 1944 film version of the play starred Marlene Dietrich and Ronald Colman.

We will now move on to 1972 and a story of an enthusiastic Frontiersman who, to avoid any delayed embarrassment, we will just call John. John lived at a comfortable address in London and from the start was a keen Frontiersman and also a royalist, particularly attracted to Princess Anne. He had an idea, which unfortunately he did not pass before senior Frontiersmen before acting on it. We quote from a Legion letter in a disciplinary file:

“Please request from the above individual a full and detailed report to you of a private enterprise in uniform in which he recently engaged himself according to his own semi-coherent account, laced with considerable verve and aplomb, when meeting him in the Club…

That without permission and in defiance of established regulations he donned uniform to engage himself in a private adventure.

That this extraordinary and no doubt unique adventure and feat of imagination could result in not only embarrassment for the Legion but bring disrepute on its good name.

That in furtherance of this remarkable and stupid escapade, he hired a horse in defiance of the recently published Order, in accordance with an established Regulation, that no member is allowed to ride in uniform on any occasion, official or otherwise, unless he has been certified as proficient in equitation by a qualified Riding Instructor or a member qualified by experience, he having been checked by Capt. McCausland and deemed far from proficient.

That the scheme then entailed riding to Buckingham Palace armed with a stuffed soft-goods dragon, roughly three feet long, in order to present it to Princess Anne, her name having been inscribed in gold gimp by his own fair hand on a large velvet cushion supporting the dragon.

Answers are required to the following questions; (the mind boggles at the idea of the possibility of this apparition having succeeded in proceeding down The Mall)

1. At what stage was he prevented from riding to the Palace?

2. Did he then proceed by taxi?

3. What were the exact circumstances of the refusal at the Palace to accept the proffered gift?

4. Does he re-affirm his claim that the Princess had previously accepted a gift from him? If so, was it made in uniform or any reference made to the Legion?…

Note: he has now presented the stuffed dragon to the Royal Society of St. George, who are not at all grateful. Not only is it a Welsh dragon, the Society claiming the Lion Couchant as their emblem, but they find xxxx an unbearable bore. Frankly I was too stunned to express fully my opinion and views at the time…”

When asked these questions and before disciplinary action could be started John tendered his resignation from the Legion claiming pressure of work. He shortly afterwards moved to Australia and lived there for some years.

To return to Patrick Moore: “…there are still many people who can branch out for themselves without being restricted by conventional ideas”. Over the years the Legion of Frontiersmen has attracted those who believed in thinking for themselves and not just being directed, often by those less imaginative than themselves. Sometimes they were right and sometimes wrong. Possibly it is the many occasions on which they were right that infuriated the regular military services who do not understand the constitutional entitlement that Frontiersmen had, and still have, to elect their own leaders and also to dispense with those who do not rise to their standards.


¹ Patrick Moore “Can You Speak Venusian?” Star paperback 1976 p.8 (originally David & Charles Ltd. 1972)
² Geoffrey A Pocock “One Hundred Years of the Legion of Frontiersmen” Phillimore 2004 p.84
³ “Banbury Advertiser” 6th November 1913
⁴ Patrick Moore “Can You Speak Venusian” p.150
⁵ Edward Knoblock “Round the Room” Chapman & Hall 1939 p.283
⁶ This story and variations of it is repeated in many books and in obituaries for Sir John Gielgud.


© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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United Farmers of Alberta Mounted Infantry Command

UNITED FARMERS OF ALBERTA MOUNTED INFANTRY COMMAND*
LEGION OF FRONTIERSMEN, BREMNER DISTRICT

Barry William Shandro M.Ed – 12 January 2019
History & Archives Section, Countess Mountbatten’s Own Legion of Frontiersmen

*The United Farmers of Alberta executive member Mr. Rice Sheppard stated, “The force in Alberta will be called U.F.A., M.I.C., L.O.F., the letters standing for United Farmers of Alberta Mounted Infantry Command, Legion of Frontiersmen.” Ref: The Grain Growers’ Guide, Page 20, March 29 1916.

1916 – ’17, United Farmers of Alberta Mounted Infantry Command* or “Corps” in the local newspaper, was formed by an agricultural association that was recruited by the Legion of Frontiersmen to provide mounted rifles in outlying areas around the City of Edmonton. “Capt. Rice Sheppard stated 600 men had signed up out of the U.F.A. for a mounted corps.” The UFAMIC reported formations in Edmonton, and in the rural villages and districts of St. Albert, Bremner, Stony Plain, Spruce Grove, Winterburn, Horse Hills, Belmont Park, Clearwater, and Leduc. Ref: LEGION OF FRONTIERSMEN NOTEBOOK [online].

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The United Farmers of Alberta Mounted Infantry Command photograph, compliments of the Strathcona County Museum and Archives (Boag Family), was brought to the attention of the Legion of Frontiersmen via the efforts of Mr. M. C. Boyd. To date this is the only known photograph of the United Farmers of Alberta Mounted Infantry Command, Legion of Frontiersmen. Shown are six members of Bremner District wearing Stetson hats common to the Canadian West. This writer is confident that the two members in the colonial style slouch or “bushranger” hats are from Edmonton Command of the Legion of Frontiersmen. The L.O.F. including the U.F.A.M.I.C. morphed into a politically acceptable Edmonton Battalion of Reserve Militia or “R.M.” in the news of the day. Interestingly, the ongoing Edmonton newspaper reports headed “Military Gossip” or “Military Orders” occasionally had the Legion of Frontiersmen badge preceding E.B.R.M. information, leaving no doubt as to Legion of Frontiersmen genesis. Ref: Glenbow Photo Archives and the Edmonton Bulletin.

Mr. M.C. Boyd commenting about this historic photograph given to the Strathcona County Museum and Archives wrote: “We received it from the Boag family photo album and two people are identified in the album. Third from the left is Archibald Boag and standing right behind the little girl is J.C.C. “Chas” Bremner. … J.C.C. Bremner died in 1928 at the age of 60. If this photo was taken in 1916 or 1917 he would be 48 years old in this photo (too old for active service).” Ref: Email 08 January 2019.

In 1916-’17 the Bremner District was an agricultural area with established farms of 160 acres or larger located immediately east of the small capital city of Edmonton, Alberta. Today this district is in Strathcona County which is home to Canada’s Legion of Frontiersmen War Memorial honouring the British Empire’s 9000 Legion of Frontiersmen war service casualties.

The two newspaper extracts below comment on the role of the UFAMIC Legion of Frontiersmen, including the Bremner District, mounted units. Ref.EDMONTON BULLETIN.

Edmonton Daily Bulletin, ‘Mounted Division’ Extract 1.

extract2

Edmonton Daily Bulletin 1917 ‘Mounted Division’ Extract 2.

Article © 2019 Barry William Shandro. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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Publicising the Legion and Recruitment

Tatler Kent camp 29 Apr 08

Topic December 2018 / January 2019. Certainly the Legion of Frontiersmen showed skills in recruitment and promoting the Legion, especially in the early years. With no television and no radio to occupy their relaxation time men went out in search of entertainment. The Frontiersmen skilfully attracted men, especially those who had served in the Boer War. Right through until the Second World War, the Legion was constantly putting on “smoking concerts”. These had been popular entertainment in South Africa and the Legion decided to repeat the popularity and use them as a way of recruiting men who had served in the military. The entertainment was often by gifted amateurs or semi-professionals. The evenings were for men only, so the men could smoke their pipes, cigars or cigarettes and engage in banter, reminiscences and risqué stories without have to take care that their language was acceptable in front of ladies. Other than temperance smoking concerts, which the Frontiersmen never promoted, there was usually a good supply of beer as they were normally held at licensed establishments. Frontiersmen ‘smokers’, as they were colloquially known, in the London area often attracted known music-hall artistes. One who was a particular attraction was Frontiersman George Leyton who was a highly popular performer of military based songs and monologues and who often appeared at leading music-halls. He was known to be a supporter of old soldiers and carried out charity work in that connection. In 1914 Leo Dryden, another well-known actor/singer of the stage was singing his patriotic songs on the music-hall stage dressed in his Frontiersman uniform promoting the Legion. Men who missed the comradeship of their army days enjoyed those evenings out at smoking concerts. The uniformed Frontiersmen present were keen to persuade them to join the Legion.

Roger Pocock the Founder, usually together with Lt. Col. Driscoll travelled the country putting on meetings and where possible with the aid of recently-formed local Frontiersmen units. Roger on his own attracted reasonable audiences but nowhere near as large as when Driscoll was in attendance, due to Driscoll’s reputation as a Boer War hero. Roger’s photographs of his adventures in America and Canada, shown with the aid of the ‘magic lantern’ and aided by his personal eccentricity were certainly some attraction, but Driscoll’s magnetic presence drew larger crowds. Roger’s promotional concert at Portsmouth in January 1907 was well reported in the local newspaper:

In the course of the evening’s amusement – and capital amusement, too – Mr. Roger Pocock, the founder the Legion, made a speech upon its objects. He was introduced by one of the leaders, Capt. J. A. Foster, and appeared in Frontiersman uniform, which appeared to be of grey cloth, with a tinge of green together with a black silk neckerchief, slouch hat, revolver in case at the side, with the belt full of cartridges, knee breeches and heavy black leggings, and spurs. As he was being introduced Mr. Pocock stood at attention, and then made a seventeen minutes speech in a soldierlike manner. His remarks were illustrated by limelight views, and when he wanted another lantern slide slide he banged the butt end of his riding whip on the platform. The sharp concussion was distinctly alarming, and you could hear ladies jump with temporary terror. They were quite prepared for a war whoop or a revolver fusilade of blank cartridge…

The lecturette was most interesting. The slides showed cowboys on the plains, frontiersmen in the Rockies, Canadian Mounted Police in the North West Provinces – their Military system of independent commands and non-red-tape has given the Legion its model – and the Union Jack and Stars and Stripes floating side by side over the snowflelds beside the Yukon, the trapper, with frosty moustache, was seen in his buckskin, and also the Rocky Mountain Dick Turpins, whom Mr. Pocock, camera in hand, caught at tea…¹

There was a supporting musical programme with a “humorist”, a conjuror, vocalists, a sword display and “ Miss Winsor’s string band”. The evening entertainment was well received but no mention was made of how many recruits were obtained for the Portsmouth Frontiersmen.

The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 17th October 1908.

Driscoll was in attendance alongside Roger Pocock at a recruiting meeting at Yarmouth, Norfolk. The attraction of having Driscoll present was indicated by the presence of the Mayor of Yarmouth presiding over the meeting. As well as old soldiers they wished to attract…

…hunters or travellers and any who had special knowledge of foreign countries, and who could perform useful services in time of war…men who had been on frontiers, and were trained in handiness and adaptability…Cowboys, big game hunters, trappers, and forest rangers had a life’s training that made them perfect scouts…They wanted colonial teamsters who could drive down the roof of a house without an upset, also an accomplished cow-thief who could steal and drive off his meat, butcher it and cook it…Such a one was a useful man. ²

Many thousands of men had travelled and worked in cattle country in the United States, in Canada, in South America, Africa and in Australia, in the mines and forests of Africa. They had returned to the home country or were just passing through on their way to the next assignment or back to where they had been working. They picked up the idea of this new organisation with its comradeship across the world, simple and inexpensive uniform and principles of duty and service to King and the Empire. They spread the word among expatriates and those with family ties to the ‘old country’. The meetings and shows staged around Britain enthused these men.

Frontiersmen Recruiting Show 1907. Due to the unavailability of ladies on that occasion, the “damsel in distress” unfortunately sports a substantial moustache.

Not only were there meetings and shows, but the Frontiersmen also staged mounted displays and assaults-at-arms. They threw open their summer camps to the press and any possible recruits who showed an interest. They put on exhibitions at shows, for example in 1913 at Handsworth Flower Show in Birmingham they gave a demonstration of mounted skills, including lassoing by ‘Prairie Dick’, an Australian Frontiersman. Frontiersmen who had worked as cowboys often adopted western names. The Legion attracted many such men. It may be surprising nowadays but, particularly in late Victorian times a steady stream of men seeking adventure travelled abroad to work at what could be described as ‘Imperial cowboys’. It was in the British nature to be a skilled horseman. We have written about ‘Texas’ Thompson before, but there was also a ‘Broncho Bill’ who appeared in Frontiersmen displays. This was not the original Broncho Bill, William Irving, who featured in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West shows, for he had died in 1903. A showman, J Howard Laurie, adopted that name in Edwardian times, but he was not the only Broncho Bill on stage or early film. For years it has been assumed that ‘Montana Bill’, a music-hall artiste, was a Frontiersman as he was pictured in Frontiersmen uniform, but in 1916 he was sentenced to three month’s imprisonment for unlawfully wearing Frontiersmen uniform and Canadian decorations to which he was not entitled.³ It is to be assumed that, although an American, he wished to wear uniform to prevent being given a white feather by ladies who considered anyone not in uniform to be a coward. It is most interesting that in those days the law considered that wearing Frontiersmen uniform when not a member of the Legion to be an imprisonable offence.

We have seen in earlier pages how the Frontiersmen displays at Regent’s Park were a great success. In January 1907 they produced a ‘grand assault-at-arms’ at St. James’s Hall, Manchester. This grand hall was capable of hosting an audience in the thousands and was ideal for Frontiersmen to put on a show in the depths of winter. The Earl of Lonsdale, President of the Legion, was present as was the Lord Mayor of Manchester. When the public were not in attendance members were able to hold the first ever Legion national conference with Frontiersmen coming from all around the country. The public display, on both the Friday and Saturday evenings, included sword, rapier and bayonet fighting. There was a wrestling and a boxing match between Lionel Palmer, of the very wealthy shipbuilding family and a Legion officer, who had once been amateur middle-weight champion of Canada, and Billy Bell, some time middleweight champion of England. ‘Broncho Bill’ gave an exhibition of roping. What was unusual was the despatches that arrived during the evening for Lord Lonsdale. These had been sent by relay teams from all round the country, the furthest coming from Portsmouth. These relay teams were cyclists. The Legion was advanced in its ideas as most squadrons had a dedicated cyclist troop. Their belief was that wheeled despatch riders could be used efficiently by the army as well as mounted ones, so it is evident that they were not wedded to the idea that the Legion should always be horse-mounted.

Manchester Courier 4 Jan 1910

Among Legion members were a number of newspaper men, usually those who had served as war correspondents. Legion camps were a source of interest to newspapers and photographs of them appeared in provincial as well as national newspapers. Photographs of Frontiersmen bareback riding, wrestling on horses, scouting, rope-making, cooking and carrying out many other outdoor activities were aimed at attracting recruits. The Legion sought out anything else that might attract publicity. One charitable action that produced column inches and newspaper photographs around the country in 1910 was the funeral of 93-year-old James Williamson, who was one of the few surviving Crimean War veterans. He had been in the Charge of the Light Brigade and wounded in the hip. George Leyton discovered Williamson in a workhouse in his final days, although the old soldier was happy to be there rather than out in the world trying to survive on a meagre pension. The Master of Newington Workhouse treated him as an honoured guest. When he died, Leyton alerted Colonel Driscoll and not only did the Frontiersmen purchase him a grave but paid the funeral expenses and gave him a military funeral with a revolver volley over the grave. The Prince of Wales personally presented a Union Jack to be draped over the coffin. The story of the funeral and the charitable action of the Frontiersmen was reported around the country and a photograph appeared even as far away as in the “Manchester Courier”, bringing excellent publicity for the Legion. The photograph shown here of the revolver volley may seem unusual to our eyes, but until the 1920 Firearms Act was passed by the British Parliament it was quite legal for the Frontiersmen to bear side-arms in a holster at their hips.

These are only a few examples of the intelligent ways the Legion of Frontiersmen boosted recruitment before the First War bringing in many thousands of men. Publicity and promotion have changed totally over the ensuing hundred-plus years and social media, unthought-of in the early days, has a considerable bearing on these matters. The task of these pages is just to report the past. It is for today’s Frontiersmen to think up and to carry out modern ways of recruitment.

¹ “Portsmouth Evening News” 30th January 1907
² “Yarmouth Independent” 2nd November 1907
³ “Manchester Evening News” 3rd November 1916


© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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A Brave soldier and Unusual Frontiersman

H.H.R. White as a young officer, 1899 (reproduced by courtesy of his grandson, Mr Ron White)

Surprising Snippets 9

Major H.H.R. White, D.S.O., O.B.E.

Henry Herbert Ronald White was born in February 1879 into a wealthy military family. He was a man of great bravery and a highly efficient soldier, who could probably have risen to be a General like his father, had he concentrated his considerable energies solely on a military career. He was highly respected and admired by the men of the 25th Fusiliers (Frontiersmen) but he was from a different mould than the toughs of the 25th. He was their first adjutant, and for much of the time their 2 i/c. The contrast in type is best illustrated in a quotation from “Kenya Chronicles” by Lord Cranworth:

The battalion was essentially a tough one and not altogether easy to handle, excepting always in action. I remember the Adjutant at this time occasionally found this trait somewhat trying. He was an admirable, conscientious and painstaking soldier but not of quite such rough fibre as most of his command. Some of his problems he brought to me. One of them was, what was the most appropriate action to take with an officer to whom he had issued an order, and who responded by telling him to go to hell and commit a peculiar and indecent offence with spiders! ‘As if I could,’ he pathetically added. I only trust that I advised him aright.

White was commissioned into the 60th Rifles in 1898 and served in South Africa 1901-2. On 10th January 1904 he was seriously wounded by a bullet through the right chest at Jidball, Somaliland. In April of that year he was promoted Capt, an unusually fast rise. He became adjutant of 5th Btn , 60th Rifles from 1906-8. He was due to be posted to Bermuda that year, but he decided to resign his commission as his father had died suddenly, and to run the family estate at Lough Eske Castle, Co. Donegal, Ireland. He modernised the castle and proved to be a wise employer. He employed a dozen workers and made sure that half were Republicans and half Unionists. When he returned after the First War, he found both political factions coming to him asking for the advice of an experienced soldier. His advice was always the same: “War is the worst of events, and killing a waste which does no person any good whatsoever.” Eventually, the Irish Troubles forced him to sell the estate.

He was a keen and skilled polo player, winning many trophies, and a dedicated fly fisherman, often spending summers after the War in Norway. Many influential men were guests at Lough Eske Castle and in 1914 many discussions were held there. We cannot be certain how this model soldier came to join the most irregular 25th Fusiliers. Driscoll was also Irish so there could be a link there, but Major White’s grandson has suggested that they may have been brought together by Col. Kitchener, the brother of the more famous Kitchener, who was sent to East Africa on a fact-finding mission. Driscoll had no vacancies for a Major, but White was happy to be listed and paid as a Captain. He still retained his Major’s insignia on his uniform and was always referred to by the Frontiersmen as “The Major”.

According to his son Henry (who died aged 99 more than fifteen years ago) “Father was a great story-teller – entertaining – and told of a prank they played on the German Commander (Von Lettow-Vorbeck, perhaps). Having at that time the higher ground, he told his gunner to put a couple of shells left and right of the commander’s tent – but not to hurt him. This done on a hot afternoon, out comes the commander in his underpants. Siesta interrupted. Father used to say that wars were a little more friendly in those days, in their peculiar ways.” We have no confirmation of this tale, but it tells us that the Major was not always the stiff and straight regimental officer. Major White’s actions on June 24th 1916 at Kwa Direma on the Lukigura were probably instrumental in his being recommended for the D.S.O. According to Charles Miller in his “Battle for the Bundu”, the Fusiliers stormed the German positions “in one of the wildest bayonet charges yet seen in the campaign.” Before the action, the men had been marching twenty-four and a half hours, fully laden and without proper food. Angus Buchanan in his “Three Years of War in East Africa” said, “ I have never seen men more utterly tired and woebegone.” There is a superb account of the action in C.T. Stoneham’s “From Hobo to Hunter.” It is a pity that Charles Stoneham never wrote a full account of his time with the 25th Fusiliers, but merely chapters and paragraphs throughout his many books. The Frontiersmen’s tiredness was soon forgotten as they got involved in the action. Stoneham wrote, “The Colonel said in his loud hearty voice, ‘All right, go forward then, and as soon as you see them get into them with the bayonet and drive them off this hill.’. My heart took a dive into my boots. The Major answered ‘Very good, sir,’ and came striding past us…..We got up and followed the Major.” Finally the enemy fled and the Major superintended the operation to sort out the wounded, a big pistol in one hand and a sandwich in the other. After an incident of this kind, Stoneham wrote, everyone felt the need for a lunch break. The natives had been told by the Germans to stay in their huts. Suddenly an old woman, apparently driven demented by her experiences, rushed forward and seized the Major’s sandwich which she proceeded to devour at his feet. “Well I’m damned”, said the Major.

The citation for Major White’s D.S.O. of February 13th, 1917 said “He displayed great courage and initiative in handling two companies under heavy fire. He has performed consistent good work throughout, and has at all times set a splendid example.” Suffering badly from malaria, Major White moved to South African Military Command in 1917 and in 1918 he became acting Lt. Col. with the Nyasaland Field Force. He was then awarded the O.B.E. After the War, the Major, as he was still always known, returned to the life of a gentleman, travelling the world, fishing and sailing motor boats. His Frontiersmen experience did tell once around 1927 in Mexico City, when a taxi driver drove the Major and his wife out into the country rather than returning them to their hotel. The Major hooked his walking stick around the driver’s throat and pulled hard, making himself understood in true Frontiersman terms. The shaken taxi driver promptly returned them to their hotel. The Major died at only 60, the wound to his chest, malaria contracted in East Africa and heavy smoking from an early age shortened his life. His advice to his son was “Here are the cigarettes and here is the whisky and any boy who takes them is a fool.” His son took notice and lived to a ripe old age.

Many thanks are due to the Major’s son, the late Mr. Henry White, and his grandson Mr. Ron White, who lives in America, for their information, permission to use the photographs and help in producing this tribute to the very brave Major H.H.R. White.


© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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Chaplains of Adventure

A Harry Leigh Pink photo reproduced courtesy of the Leigh Pink family

Topic October/November 2018.  The first Legion Padre was Bishop H.H. Montgomery, who we will know of in the main as being the father of the famous Montgomery of Alamein. He was succeeded by several mainly London-based clergymen, often with somewhat unusual surnames. In 1909 there were two Chaplains: Arthur Humphrey Townsend (1867-1942) an eccentric curate, and W Grome-Merrilees. From 1912 the duties were shared by F.W. Everard Digby-Digby, F. Houlden Merrick and C.P. Casey. From 1914 until after the end of the war, the sole Chaplain was Rt. Revd. E.N. Powell (1859-1928) who between 1908 and 1910 had been Bishop of Mashonaland.

In the 1930s, the enthusiastic Padre was the Revd. William Pennington-Bickford, well-known in London. Although not a Frontiersman traveller, as he had spent his whole career as Rector of St. Clement Danes, he was an outstanding publicist and his Church was central to many Frontiersmen parades in the capital. In 1919 he had restored the church bells and 1920 he used the carillon to play the tune of “Oranges and Lemons say the bells of St. Clement”. Other London churches have claimed that they were the original St. Clement but Pennington-Bickford made the rhyme his own, holding an annual service when fruit, the gift of the London Danish community, was handed out to children. On May 10th 1941 St. Clement burned down as the result of a German incendiary bomb. Pennington-Bickford was so broken-hearted that he died a month later and it is believed that he took his own life. His wife fell from an attic window shortly afterwards and this was also believed to be suicide because she could not face life without her husband.

The best-known Canadian Padre was Legion Major Harry Leigh-Pink. He wrote many lively western and adventure books under the name of Hal Pink, as well as the biography of a man whose name will be familiar to Canadian Frontiersmen, “Bill Guppy, King of the Woodsmen, life–long friend and tutor of ‘Grey Owl’”. One of his more lurid fiction books was “The Screaming Plant.” “Flower-shaped suckers there were indeed, opening and shutting like so many mouths waiting for food…” The plant’s first victim is the cat, the plant sucking all the blood out of the poor animal. Leigh-Pink was a good friend of the Legion Founder, Roger Pocock, and told the story of Christmas 1930 when Leigh-Pink worked for London General Press.

Strong tea was his tipple in those days – he was 63 (actually 65) – and usually he managed to arrive in my office just when the typist had made a steaming brew. Off would come his trench-coat and hat, dripping wet from the London rain; he would plump in the captain’s chair beside my desk, I would push a packet of Gold Flakes towards him, down went the tea, up went the smokes, and some chance comment of mine would set him off on a chain of reminiscence. 1

Leigh-Pink interviewed many Frontiersmen and wrote excellent accounts of some of the events they had experienced in East Africa.

1908 photo of Cave from The Sketch.jpg

However, the strangest and most adventurous of the Legion padres has to be Sir Genille Cave-Browne-Cave who took over the duties during the 1920s until his death in 1929. Born in 1869, his escapades caused his family many problems. His father sent him to a training ship of the Royal Naval Reserve, but after 6 months his father was told to “take the little devil home”. The boy wanted a life at sea so his father apprenticed him to serve on the sailing ships sailing to Australia. Still causing problems he signed on in the 13th Hussars claiming to be 18 instead of 16½ becoming a“gentleman ranker”. As we have seen in earlier pages, it was not only Buffalo Bill who ran a Wild West Circus and the young man became involved with “Mexican Joe’s” Wild West Show. This made him determined to become a cowboy. After service in India he bought himself out of the army. He spent some time wandering and working in Burma, Australia, America and Greenland and finally made his way “out west” in America to become a cowboy. He soon became an expert both with a lariat and with a gun. First of all known as “English” his nickname changed to “Kit”, short for Kitty. For the full entertaining story of how that came about the reader will have to search out a copy of his very rare (and nowadays very expensive) autobiography “From Cowboy to Pulpit”. 2 Other stories tell of how the westerners found their way around prohibition. He served in the Spanish American War of 1898. He would have liked to have fought in the Boer War but instead found himself on a ship going to China. Even then he was unable to get into action in the Boxer Rebellion as he could find no way to leave his ship. He returned to his cowboy life in the west of America. What he said about the life there confirms everything Roger Pocock wrote about it.3 He told some fascinating stories:

One fine old judge that I remember was coroner as well, but he had only two formulas for the death certificates – that is to say, when he remembered to fill them in. One of them was that the deceased died from lead poisoning – that was when he was shot; the other was that he had died from lack of breath, which was when he was hanged.

1908 Cave Wild West Show from The Sketch

His skills in all of the cowboy arts became well known and he was offered a job running the Circle Dot ranch. This belonged to a wealthy man who had entrusted it to his son who knew little about cowboy work. The word soon got around the local town that this Englishman would be taking over the ranch, and not everyone approved:

‘Be careful, English, Big Nat is going to get you.’

Not only was Kit skilled at handling cattle, he was also fearless and a crack shot with a revolver. One evening he went to the town and found that everyone was giving him a wide berth, when out of a local eating house stepped Big Nat, obviously well-lubricated with liquor:

“You damned English,” he said, ‘going to run an outfit, are you,’ he said huskily, ‘I’m going to blow you apart.’ He made a grab with his gun, but as it came out of the holster my Colt roared, and his went flying out of his hand. I shall never forget the look of surprise and terror on his face as he saw my gun covering him and expecting me to drop him where he stood.

‘I can shoot straight and quick,’ I said, ‘and can draw as quick as I can shoot. But it will do me no good to kill you. Get out of town as quick as you can.’

The street by this time was full of men, curious as to what was going to happen, but he slipped away like a hare, and not even stopping to pick up his gun. In ranch law I should have been quite justified in killing him. I was never bothered there again.

Roping with lariat

Kit began work at the ranch and was kept busy mending fences until one evening a group of three or four men rode up They seemed far from friendly and one of them remarked:

‘Goin’ to run this outfit?’

‘Sure thing,’ I said.

‘Huh, and what’ll yo do if yor cattle get stolen?’

‘Look here, stranger,’ I said, ‘if I lose one head I get two back for it, understand? We hang cattle thieves round here. I’m chancing things, and I am running this outfit to suit myself.’

After a few more remarks they rode off, but I felt there was trouble brewing, and that night I gave my two .45 Colts an extra clean. It was always best to carry one, although while working on fences I had not been packing a gun.

Now, by this time I had got to know my herd pretty well, and although things went on pretty smoothly for a time, one morning I missed several head from the herd, and on counting them I found it was exactly ten. That night I went off alone looking for night herds. In the end I found one and in the early morning I returned to the ranch with twenty head, which I turned into my herd. This was rank stealing, of course, and that day I carried two guns. I had made up my mind to see it out, testing myself several times that day. I knew exactly how fast I was on the draw.

Towards sundown I saw what I took to be the same four men riding towards the ranch, and I slipped round to the back of the the ranch house and waited with my back to the corral fence, so that no one could get round and attack me from behind. Riding up, they dismounted and came towards me.

‘Where in hell did you get them cows?’ shouted one.

‘Stole ’em,’ I replied at the top of my voice.

‘Hell,’ he yelled, and I saw his hands move.

In a flash both of my guns were out, and here I remembered a very useful hint given me by an old Texas gunman. When facing more than one man always keep your eye on something midway between them, then you cannot miss the slightest movement on the part of anyone. In addition, a very useful gift I possessed was the ability to read a man’s thoughts. When the brain sends a signal to the muscle to pull a gun and take the risk of life or death, the eyes always open slightly wider. That knowledge has saved my life more than once. You can shoot while the other man has hardly got his gun out. But in the case I am relating the men had come to a dead stop.

‘Well,’ I said, ‘I can get two of you if the other two get me. Now move, and I’ll blow you wide open.’

There was not as much as the tremor of an eyelid on either side for the moments that seemed like minutes: then the leader said ‘Put up your guns.’

I did so.

‘Now shake hands,’ he said holding out his own with a friendly laugh.

We shook. ⁵

The men all then sat down together for supper and a chat, although the ranch cook had been scared out of his life. That night Kit returned those twenty head of cattle and within a few days the missing ten cows had mysteriously returned.

Kit and the leader of the men soon became firm friends.

The way of the West.

It was a boisterous life and the brotherhood of the cowboy never left any man. This explains why so many who had worked in the American west were to join the early Legion. Eventually his father died and “Kit of the Circle Dot ranch” became an English Baronet, although he continued to work as a cowboy when he could escape the press who plagued him on his visits to and from England. Being an expert with the lariat, he was called upon by Colonel Cummins to appear in his Wild West Show, also referred to as “Colonel Cummins’ Wild West Indian Congress and Rough Riders of the World”, at Liverpool. When that show moved to Europe he set up his own show persuading some of those who had been performing with him to join his show. In spite of the fact that there were over a hundred “Wild West Shows” touring U.S.A. and Europe, he experienced some success at the Hippodrome arena in London. His father had left him an estate deeply in debt and “Kit” was determined to earn enough money to pay off the family debts. Shortage of money was to plague him for the rest of his life. Unable to settle down, he moved between America and England. One day by chance he attended a Salvation Army meeting in New York and became a converted Christian and left his cowboy life to work in the Ministry.

Londesborough church parade with the padre

At the beginning of the War in 1914 he tried to gain acceptance as an army chaplain but was too old. Eventually he got taken on by the C.E.F. and served in England as a corporal. On demobilisation he was ordained in the Church of England and settled down as the Vicar of Londesborough in the East Riding of Yorkshire, becoming in the 1920s until his death the Frontiersmen’s Padre who had lived a life as adventurous as any other Frontiersman, but was now a man of peace who had laid aside his Colt revolver. As seen in the photograph, the Frontiersmen regularly attended a church parade at his church.

The Legion’s Padre in uniform

Will any of the Legion’s more recent Padres be able to tell of such an adventurous life story as their predecessors? We will have to wait until after they have departed this world and then future historians will be able to record their lives as part of the Legion’s long history.


1 “Canadian Frontiersman” Oct-Nov-Dec 1964. More about this is to be found in “Outrider of Empire: the life and adventures of Roger Pocock”, by Geoffrey A Pocock. For more of Leigh Pink’s stories see: Frontiersmen have always been found in the most unlikely places and http://www.frontiersmenhistorian.info/bukoba.htm

2 “From Cowboy to Pulpit” by Sir Genille Cave-Browne-Cave (London, Herbert Jenkins, 1926, see also extracts published in the “Dundee Evening Telegraph”, November 1926)

3 “Outrider of Empire” tells much of Roger Pocock’s experiences as a cowboy and with cowboys, particularly when he rode the “Outlaw Trail” from Canada to Mexico in 1899

⁴ “From Cowboy to Pulpit” and “Dundee Evening Telegraph”.

⁵ Ibid

The photograph of a Legion Church Parade at Londesborough together with the Padre is from an unidentified newspaper cutting in the Legion archives and therefore reproduced as well as is possible.


© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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Commemorating the “Nine Thousand”

Canadian Frontiersmen

Topic August/September 2018. There will be many commemorations and countless books about the centenary of the end of the First War – the Great War – the “war to end all wars”. In this topic page we will take a look at the sacrifice of Frontiersmen in the service of what was then King and Empire and the extraordinary demonstrations of patriotism and service shown by Frontiersmen, many of whom paid the final sacrifice. At every Frontiersmen dinner round the world since the 1920s, the toast after that of “The King” or “The Queen” has always been “The Nine Thousand”. That has always been the Legion’s claim of the number of Frontiersmen who gave their lives to King and Empire, now the Commonwealth. The first recorded reference to “the nine thousand” that has been discovered is in the May 1922 “Frontiersman” magazine, although various other numbers appeared earlier than this in newspapers, for example, as quoted elsewhere on this site:

J. Suffern, captain of the New South Wales command stated that: “…out of the 13,500 members over 12,000 have been on active service and of this number nearly 6000, or 50%, have been killed or incapacitated by wounds or sickness.” Capt. J. Suffern also commented: “Here in New South Wales were 350 members on active service.” (SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, “The Frontiersmen… 50 Per Cent Casualties”, page 05, 25 August 1919.)

For years the Frontiersmen had been certain that war with German was inevitable. As soon as war was declared a trickle of Frontiersmen, which soon turned into a flood, arrived from all round the world at the little office on the top floor of 6 Adam Street London. The steady stream of rough, often Colonial, men dressed not in London clothes but in practical Colonial garb, wending their way down Adam Street and up the narrow staircase to the Frontiersmen office would certainly have raised eyebrows in this well-to-do part of London.

…every Frontiersman was ready for the call to arms, and they fought in every theatre of the war. Many returned to the United Kingdom to join the Forces. 100 from China and 20 more from South America, all at their own expense. Many worked their passage home in various ways…
Over 9000 gave their lives in the great struggle…
Some 1,500 Australian and New Zealand Frontiersmen died with the Anzacs in Gallipoli.
The South African members served with the Rand Rifles.”

(Major J. Dowd’s 1951 history booklet)

Not only were Frontiersmen from Winnipeg, Canada, making their way to Valcartier Camp, but according to the “Dundee Courier”: “Several impatient members of the Winnipeg Legion of Frontiersmen turned up in London on the chance of being included in an early draft for France.” These were among many Frontiersmen who worked their passage across the Atlantic. Although the War Office would not initially grant Driscoll a named Frontiersmen unit, these men with their great skills in mastering horses were of inestimable value horse-breaking at Shirehampton and Swaythling.

(see http://www.frontiersmenhistorian.info/remount.htm also https://frontiersmenhistorian.wordpress.com/2018/05/01/a-persistent-mystery/ )

The “Calgary Daily Herald” of October 5th 1914 reported that 50 Frontiersmen who had grown tired of waiting to be called into active service had made their own way to London and presented themselves at the War Office. According to the newspaper they eventually got to see Kitchener himself and having had their service accepted reported that: “We are leaving for Southampton in a day or two.” One can assume that they had been sent to the Remounts.

In August 1914, Lt.-Col. Driscoll wrote a most illuminating letter to Fred Storey, who commanded the Belfast sub-unit:

Before the declaration of war, the offer of one thousand picked men for serving anywhere on earth was promptly acknowledged by the Army Council. After the war was declared a second communication was received from the War Office thanking the Legion for their patriotic offer, but informing them that until the young force of 100,000 being raised by Earl Kitchener was complete nothing further would be done regarding the raising of extra regiments for the front. The offer still being with the War Office, members of the Legion will have to wait orders patiently like good soldiers. Since the outbreak of war, numerous cables have arrived from our commands all over the earth offering to pay their own expenses and join us in England. It has been very touching to be unable to cable back to them to join their comrades in England. However this may come at any time. The recruiting for the Legion all over England has been remarkable. In London alone some 5,000 men of the very best stamp have been registered at headquarters, so that we are able to offer to the War Office in England alone at least six mounted or dismounted regiments of the finest fighting men in the world outside the British Army. Yesterday a cable was sent from the Governor of Newfoundland to the Foreign Office asking for permission from the Legion of Frontiersmen headquarters to permit one hundred of the Legion of Frontiersmen in Labrador and Newfoundland to join the Canadian expeditionary force. Colonel Driscoll desires all members of the Legion to be patient and to go on diligently preparing themselves for active service, so that if the country needs them they shall be more than ever prepared to go to the front without delay. Colonel Driscoll endeavoured to supply one or more regiments to Earl Kitchener’s 100,000 men, but was informed that only young men of a certain age would be accepted. The average Legion age is above this. Many hundreds of members of the Legion have joined various military departments with the full and unqualified approval of headquarters.

The Argentine Sub-Unit of the Legion of Frontiersmen, London Command, was officially constituted on November 1st 1912, the organising officer was Lieut E. W. Benson, LF. When war appeared inevitable, the Sub-Unit cabled to England on the 31st July 1914, offering their services to the British Empire for any part of the world, and undertook to equip themselves completely and be fully mounted. At that time there were twenty-seven members on the nominal roll, Malcolm Pulbrook being Organising Secretary, and of these men twenty-three travelled to England before the end of the year to join up, the majority sailing in August and September 1914. The remaining members were at that time debarred on account of age. As most of the men had seen active service in some part or other of the world, and were fully qualified in drill and shooting, they were rapidly taken into the army, and before the close of 1914, several of them were at the front.

Pulbrook served as a driver in the Royal Engineers and E. W. Benson as a Lieutenant in the Bedfordshire Regt, attached to the RE Signals. He was awarded the Military Cross.

Although we have so many accounts of the remarkable patriotism and eagerness to serve shown by Frontiersmen all round the world there were examples of Frenchmen showing equal dedication. The “Sheffield Telegraph” told of two French reservists who were working as trappers on the Mackenzie River some 1300 miles from the furthest north-west railroad in Canada. By September 30th 1914 they had tramped towing a sled to Fort Chipewayan on Lake Athabasca where a Canadian Mounted Police officer gave them a letter of explanation as to why they were so late reporting for duty to present when they reached France. They still had another 700 miles to walk through the Canadian winter before they reached a railroad.

Legion Major J. Dowd wrote a reasonably accurate brief history booklet of the Legion in 1951 with only a small number of inaccuracies. He had the advantage of having served for many years and met many of the original members:

No Corps in the world possesses the elements of adventure in so great a degree as the Legion of Frontiersmen nor carries so many decorations for Active Service and Valour.
The Legion has gathered into its ranks men whose collective adventures in all parts of the world would make as thrilling and absorbing reading as any volume of fact and fiction ever published.

Turner inspection

Major-General Sir Alfred Turner inspected the Legion on parade on Victoria Embankment in London in 1914 and is recorded during that year as a member of the Executive Council. After the inspection he wrote to Lt-Colonel Driscoll:

…The value of a trained body of soldiers, a large number of whom have served in one or more campaigns, men who are in a very respectable position in life, and who, out of feelings of pure patriotism, enrol themselves for the service of the Empire, cannot be too highly estimated, and they deserve every possible recognition and encouragement from the State. The manner in which they stood on parade, the way in which they held themselves and marched, showed that they had not forgotten their former military training.”

Arriving for parade

This parade, some 350 strong, was held about nine weeks before the start of the War. not only of members from all round Britain, but also representatives from Malta, Persia, Calcutta, Nigeria, Australia, the Federated Malay States and other countries, all of whom had also attended the previous day’s Legion A.G.M..

When the War Office called for a further inspection, this time on the very hot Sunday 7th September, the Frontiersmen were inspected in London by General Bethune, another South African veteran. About seven hundred of them marched from the Embankment to Vincent Square to be inspected. It would have been more impressive had Driscoll been able to raise his promised two thousand, but his defence was that these were mainly men who lived in or near London. Some of the Manchester Troop were there, also the Lord Mayor of Manchester. According to a writer in “The Sketch”, “..what a magnificent set of fellows they are…” The brief extract from Bethune’s report to Kitchener surviving in War Office files stated that the men were “typical toughs who would do most excellent work as irregulars”. This statement quoted in War Office files out of the context of the full report sounds critical of the quality of the men, but it should probably be read the other way, that the Frontiersmen would be suitable for the way they wished to serve. There can be no doubt that Frontiersmen were often tough characters and some were “known to the police”. In 1919 the “Manchester Guardian” told of an incident in 1915 when the police were searching for a wanted man. It was suggested that the man might have enlisted in 25th Bn. Royal Fusiliers (Frontiersmen) to gain a swift passage out of the country. A plain-clothes policeman was sent from Manchester to London to see if he could identify the man among Driscoll’s troops preparing to entrain for their ship. Asked whether he had found his wanted man, the policeman replied “No, but I recognised all the others”. Possibly true or possibly false, but the story does show that however rough and tough these men were, they remained intensely patriotic. It is difficult for us, over a century later, to comprehend the attitude of these men. The most extreme case is that of fifty-four year old Edgar Keeling, a Manchester Frontiersmen. He was desperate to re-enlist, but although he was an expert rifle shot and known as a sober and respectable man, neither was he allowed due to his age to go with the Manchester Frontiersmen to Belgium nor was he accepted by any army unit. He was so depressed that he could not fight for his country that he committed suicide with his old service rifle which he had somehow retained.

If we go forward to 1939, although Frontiersmen were willing to fight for their country, it was with a grim determination to defeat Fascist Germany. The enthusiasm which brought men from all over the world to enlist in 1914 was not there. After the First War many survivors had moved with their families to countries such as Canada, New Zealand and Australia, taking up nationality. As we have pointed out in previous items on gas warfare training the First War had only ended some twenty-one years earlier, well within memory. Most families had lost family members. In the final years before the start of the Second War the Territorial Army was busy recruiting and actively seeking out the younger Frontiersmen as they would already have been well-trained. Senior army officers from the First War were happy to serve as rank and file Frontiersmen and it was often the younger men who were elected as officers. Ernest F. Meacock, a Second Lieutenant in the Frontiersmen, was sought out by the Territorials and commissioned. He wrote that he had to be reminded by his sergeant that “The order, sir, is ‘Squad!’, not ‘Frontiersmen!'”.

Frontiersmen Memorial Canada

What of today? The world has changed beyond recognition and there is a strong movement against becoming involved in any war or conflict in any country. In some countries there is a requirement for military training by the young, but not in much of the western world. Few of the young have any idea of military life and nor would they care to. Armed conflict relies heavily on computers. Those Frontiersmen who rushed to Britain in 1914 to serve would be absolutely astonished to see the world well over a hundred years later. As the famous L.P. Hartley quotation goes:

The past is a foreign country, they do things differently there.

Frontiersmen New Zealand Memorial at National Park

There are two dedicated Frontiersmen Memorials around the world. One is in Alberta, Canada and the other in New Zealand. The plaque on the New Zealand Memorial reads:

Erected to the memory of the 9000 members of the Legion of Frontiersmen who gave their lives in the Great War 1914 – 1918. And of those gallant comrades who fell in freedom’s cause in World War II 1939 – 1945. We Shall Remember them”

The Frontiersmen will always carry on raising a glass to “The Nine Thousand”.

Photographs © Legion of Frontiersmen CMO archives. Photograph of New Zealand Memorial courtesy the late Bruce Fuller, Fenreach Trust


© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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